Importance of Touch: Benefits for Babies & Caregivers

Explore the science of touch in infant development. Discover how physical contact benefits babies' emotions, brains & health, and strengthens caregiver bonds.
Importance of Touch: Benefits for Babies & Caregivers


The first months and years of life lay the foundation for a child’s emotional, cognitive, and physical development. While factors like nutrition and a stimulating environment are crucial, one fundamental element often goes underappreciated: physical contact. Human touch, particularly between infants and their caregivers, is not merely a source of comfort; it is a vital component of healthy development with profound and lasting effects.

The significance of physical contact was dramatically illustrated over six decades ago by Harry Harlow’s renowned monkey experiments. Infant monkeys, separated from their mothers, were presented with two surrogate mothers: one made of wire and equipped with a feeding bottle, and the other covered in soft cloth but lacking nourishment. Despite the association of food with survival, the infant monkeys overwhelmingly preferred the cloth mother, clinging to its soft surface for comfort and security. This groundbreaking research demonstrated that the need for contact and comfort surpasses even the basic drive for sustenance.

Further evidence for the importance of touch comes from studies of orphaned children raised in deprived environments lacking nurturing physical contact. These children exhibited a range of developmental issues, including cognitive delays, attachment difficulties, and emotional disturbances. This research underscores the devastating consequences of touch deprivation and highlights its critical role in shaping a child’s trajectory.

The profound impact of physical contact on infants aligns with the principles of attachment theory, a cornerstone of developmental psychology. Attachment theory posits that a secure emotional bond with a primary caregiver is essential for healthy development. Physical contact, through holding, cuddling, and caressing, serves as a primary means of establishing and strengthening this bond. It provides infants with a sense of safety, security, and comfort, fostering trust and laying the groundwork for healthy emotional development and future relationships.

Beyond its role in attachment, touch is a primary sense that plays a crucial role in early infancy, perhaps even surpassing the importance of vision and hearing during this stage. Even before birth, fetuses experience touch within the womb, sensing their own bodies and the surrounding environment. After birth, the skin becomes the infant’s primary interface with the world, offering a rich source of sensory information and a means of connection with others. Through touch, infants explore their surroundings, learn about their own bodies, and develop a sense of self. They associate the sensations of touch with the voices, sights, and smells of their caregivers, forming a holistic understanding of their primary attachment figure and building the foundation for social interaction and emotional connection.

Physical Contact and Infant Development

The editorial, “To Have and To Hold: Effects of Physical Contact on Infants and Their Caregivers,” provides a springboard into a diverse collection of research on the multifaceted benefits of physical contact in infancy. Let’s explore some key findings from other researchers featured in the special issue:

Attachment and Carrying:

  • Norholt (2020): This review emphasizes the historical and current evidence supporting the crucial role of mother-infant physical contact in attachment theory and research. It highlights the significance of touch for developing secure attachments and the positive outcomes associated with maternal carrying and skin-to-skin contact.
  • Berecz et al. (2020): This paper explores the evolutionary perspective of infant carrying, suggesting that it played a vital role in human survival and development as brain size increased. Carrying allowed for close contact and protection, fostering infants’ cognitive and social development within the context of their caregivers.
  • Little et al. (2019): This study found that babywearing enhanced maternal responsiveness to infant cues, increased tactile interactions, and fostered belief in the importance of responding to infants’ signals. Babywearing appears to promote a more attuned and responsive caregiving style.
  • Williams and Turner (2020): This research focused on at-risk adolescent mothers and found that those who practiced babywearing had infants with more secure attachments and fewer disorganized attachments at seven months compared to the control group. Babywearing seems to be a valuable tool for promoting secure attachment in vulnerable populations.

Skin-to-Skin Contact:

  • Uvnäs-Moberg et al. (2020): This review delves into the neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying the physiological and behavioral effects of skin-to-skin contact. It highlights the role of oxytocin release and sensory nerve fiber activation in promoting calmness, bonding, and positive developmental outcomes for both infants and parents.
  • Owusu-Ansah et al. (2019): This cross-cultural study comparing Ghanaian and Canadian mother-infant dyads found that skin-to-skin contact enhanced infants’ ability to respond emotionally to their mothers’ changing behavior during the Still Face Task. This suggests that skin-to-skin contact may accelerate infants’ developing expectations for social engagement and contribute to their social-emotional development.

Caregiver Touch and Co-Sleeping:

  • Mercuri et al. (2019): This study investigated the link between parents’ initial touch with their newborns and later touch at three months postpartum. The findings suggest that early touch experiences lay the foundation for nurturing and responsive caregiving behaviors over time.
  • Provenzi et al. (2020): This research explored how different types of maternal touch influence gaze orienting in infants with and without neurodevelopmental disabilities. The findings suggest that specific types of touch can support infants’ attention and social orientation, but the optimal type of touch may vary depending on the infant’s developmental status.
  • Barry (2019): This review examines the interdisciplinary perspectives on co-sleeping, highlighting the positive effects of physical touch and proximity on infants and caregivers. The author suggests that public health messages should focus on safe co-sleeping practices rather than discouraging the practice altogether.
  • Raghunath et al. (2020): This study found that infants who regularly co-sleep with their mothers or sleep in close proximity exhibit enhanced physiological calming and self-regulation during nap time compared to solitary sleepers. Co-sleeping appears to promote self-soothing abilities and adaptability to different sleep environments.

Measuring Infant Movement:

  • Patel et al. (2019): This paper introduces a novel two-body sensor system designed to measure infants’ spontaneous movements while being held. This tool has the potential to provide valuable insights into infant neurodevelopment and identify potential risks for developmental disorders.

Overall, these research findings contribute to a growing body of evidence demonstrating the wide-ranging benefits of physical contact for infants and their caregivers. The studies highlight the importance of touch for emotional regulation, cognitive development, attachment security, and caregiver well-being. They also emphasize the need for culturally sensitive approaches and consideration of individual circumstances when promoting physical contact and supporting families in providing nurturing touch to their infants.

Importance of Touch: Benefits for Babies & Caregivers

Benefits of Physical Contact for Infants

The positive effects of physical contact on infants extend across multiple domains, impacting their emotional well-being, cognitive development, physical health, and overall sense of self.

A. Emotional Regulation and Security

Physical contact plays a crucial role in helping infants regulate their emotions. The soothing sensation of touch can calm a distressed baby, reducing crying and promoting a sense of security. Studies have shown that skin-to-skin contact, in particular, can stabilize an infant’s heart rate, breathing, and body temperature, fostering a state of physiological calmness. This ability to self-regulate emotions is essential for healthy development and forms the basis for emotional resilience later in life.

B. Cognitive Development and Learning

Physical contact also contributes to cognitive development and learning. Through touch, infants explore their environment and gain an understanding of object properties such as texture, shape, and size. This sensory exploration stimulates brain development and lays the foundation for later problem-solving skills and spatial reasoning. Additionally, the interaction and engagement that accompany physical contact provide opportunities for infants to learn social cues, facial expressions, and communication patterns.

C. Physical Growth and Health

Research suggests that physical contact can positively impact an infant’s physical growth and health. Studies have shown that premature infants who receive regular skin-to-skin contact tend to gain weight faster, have stronger immune systems, and experience shorter hospital stays. Massage therapy for infants has also been shown to promote relaxation, improve sleep patterns, and alleviate discomfort from gas and colic.

D. Development of Self-Awareness and Body Image

Through touch, infants develop a sense of their own bodies and their boundaries in relation to others. The experience of being held and touched by caregivers helps infants distinguish between self and other, fostering a sense of self-awareness and body image. This awareness is essential for the development of a healthy sense of self and forms the basis for future social interactions and relationships.

Benefits of Physical Contact for Caregivers

While the benefits of physical contact for infants are widely recognized, it’s important to acknowledge the positive impact it also has on caregivers. The act of touching and holding an infant is not a one-way street; it creates a reciprocal exchange of comfort, connection, and emotional well-being for both parties involved.

A. Release of Oxytocin and its Effects on Mood and Behavior

Physical contact, particularly skin-to-skin, triggers the release of oxytocin in caregivers. Often referred to as the “love hormone” or “cuddle hormone,” oxytocin plays a significant role in promoting bonding, trust, and empathy. This hormonal response contributes to feelings of calmness, reduces stress and anxiety, and fosters a sense of well-being in caregivers. The increased oxytocin levels can also enhance nurturing behaviors, making caregivers more attuned to their infant’s needs and more responsive to their cues.

B. Enhanced Responsiveness to Infant Cues

Physical closeness facilitates a deeper understanding of an infant’s subtle signals. By being in close contact, caregivers can more readily recognize the nuances of their infant’s cries, facial expressions, and body language. This heightened awareness allows them to respond more effectively and promptly to the infant’s needs, whether it be hunger, discomfort, or a desire for interaction. This responsiveness is crucial for building trust and security in the infant, fostering a sense of being understood and cared for.

C. Strengthening the Caregiver-Infant Bond

Physical contact serves as a cornerstone of the caregiver-infant bond. The act of holding, cuddling, and caressing an infant creates a sense of closeness and connection that goes beyond words. It provides opportunities for eye contact, vocalization, and playful interaction, strengthening the emotional tie between caregiver and infant. This bond forms the foundation for the child’s future relationships and social-emotional development.

D. Increased Confidence and Competence in Parenting

For many caregivers, especially new parents, the ability to soothe and comfort their infant through touch can boost their confidence and competence in their parenting role. Successfully responding to an infant’s needs and witnessing the calming effect of their touch reinforces their sense of capability and strengthens their belief in their ability to care for their child. This increased confidence can positively impact their overall parenting approach and contribute to a more positive and nurturing parent-child relationship.

Importance of Touch: Benefits for Babies & Caregivers

Cultural and Societal Influences on Physical Contact

The prevalence and perception of physical contact between infants and caregivers vary significantly across cultures and societies. Understanding these differences can provide valuable insights into the diverse ways in which touch shapes early development and the parent-child relationship.

A. Comparison of Contact Levels in Western vs. Non-Western Societies

Anthropological studies have revealed striking contrasts in the amount of physical contact infants experience in different cultures. In many non-Western societies, particularly those with traditional lifestyles, close physical contact between infants and caregivers is the norm. Babies are often carried on their mothers’ bodies throughout the day, sleep alongside their parents, and receive frequent touch and affection. This constant contact reflects cultural values emphasizing interdependence, community, and the importance of physical closeness in child-rearing.

In contrast, Western societies tend to have lower levels of physical contact between infants and caregivers. Factors such as the rise of formula feeding, reliance on baby equipment like strollers and cribs, and an emphasis on independence and self-soothing have contributed to a decline in the amount of time infants spend in close physical contact with others. While these practices may offer convenience and promote self-reliance, they can also limit opportunities for touch and physical connection, potentially impacting the development of the caregiver-infant bond and the child’s emotional well-being.

B. Modern Practices that Reduce Physical Contact

Several modern practices common in Western societies have inadvertently contributed to a reduction in physical contact between infants and caregivers:

  • Formula feeding: While formula provides adequate nutrition, it eliminates the skin-to-skin contact and closeness inherent in breastfeeding, which stimulates oxytocin release and fosters a sense of connection for both mother and infant.
  • Baby gear: The use of strollers, cribs, and other baby equipment, while often convenient, can limit opportunities for physical contact and carrying, which are essential for infant development and attachment.
  • Hospital practices: Medical interventions and routines in hospitals, such as separating mothers and newborns for observation or placing babies in bassinets rather than encouraging skin-to-skin contact, can disrupt early bonding and reduce opportunities for touch.

C. Impact of Cultural Beliefs and Norms on Parenting Practices

Cultural beliefs and norms significantly influence parenting practices related to physical contact. In some cultures, co-sleeping is considered a natural and beneficial practice that promotes closeness and security, while in others, it may be viewed as unsafe or detrimental to a child’s independence. Similarly, attitudes towards babywearing, breastfeeding, and responsiveness to crying can vary widely based on cultural values and expectations.

Understanding the cultural context of parenting practices is essential for avoiding judgment and promoting culturally sensitive support for families. While certain practices may be more conducive to physical contact and attachment, it’s important to respect diverse approaches and empower parents to make informed choices that align with their cultural values and family’s needs.

Challenges and Considerations

While the benefits of physical contact in infancy are undeniable, several challenges and considerations can impact its implementation and necessitate thoughtful approaches to ensure that infants receive the touch they need to thrive.

A. COVID-19 Pandemic and its Impact on Physical Contact

The COVID-19 pandemic has presented unprecedented challenges to physical contact and closeness, particularly during infancy. Restrictions on hospital visits, social distancing measures, and isolation protocols have limited infants’ exposure to touch and interaction with extended family and community members. Mothers who test positive for the virus may be separated from their newborns, disrupting early bonding and skin-to-skin contact. These limitations pose significant concerns for infant development and caregiver well-being, highlighting the need for creative solutions and support systems to mitigate the potential negative effects of reduced physical contact during this critical period.

B. Balancing Safety and the Need for Touch

Ensuring infant safety is paramount, but it’s important to strike a balance between necessary precautions and providing adequate opportunities for physical contact. While certain circumstances may require temporary separation or limited contact, such as in cases of illness or medical interventions, it’s crucial to prioritize re-establishing closeness and touch as soon as it is safe to do so. Caregivers can explore alternative ways to provide comfort and connection during periods of separation, such as through video calls, voice recordings, or providing the infant with an object carrying the caregiver’s scent.

C. Addressing Potential Barriers to Physical Contact

Several factors can create barriers to physical contact between infants and caregivers, necessitating awareness and support to ensure that infants’ needs for touch are met:

  • Postpartum depression: Mothers experiencing postpartum depression may struggle to connect with their infants and engage in nurturing physical contact. Recognizing the signs of postpartum depression and providing appropriate support and treatment is crucial for both the mother’s well-being and the infant’s healthy development.
  • Disability: Caregivers with physical disabilities may face challenges in holding, carrying, or providing physical care for their infants. Accessible equipment, support services, and community resources can help overcome these challenges and facilitate physical closeness and bonding.
  • Premature birth or illness: Infants born prematurely or with medical conditions may require specialized care that necessitates periods of separation or limited contact. In such cases, healthcare providers can work with families to maximize opportunities for touch and interaction whenever possible, such as through kangaroo care and involving parents in caregiving routines.

Research and Future Directions

The study of physical contact and its impact on infant development is a dynamic and evolving field. Researchers from various disciplines, including psychology, neuroscience, anthropology, and medicine, are continually exploring the multifaceted ways in which touch shapes early experiences and influences long-term outcomes.

A. Overview of Current Research on Physical Contact and Infant Development

Current research on physical contact encompasses a broad range of areas, including:

  • Attachment and bonding: Studies investigate how different patterns of touch and physical closeness contribute to the formation of secure attachment relationships between infants and caregivers.
  • Neurobiological effects: Researchers explore the neural and hormonal mechanisms underlying the positive effects of touch, such as the release of oxytocin and its impact on stress regulation, social bonding, and emotional well-being.
  • Developmental outcomes: Studies examine the long-term effects of physical contact on various aspects of development, including cognitive skills, emotional regulation, social competence, and physical health.
  • Cultural variations: Cross-cultural research investigates how cultural beliefs and practices influence patterns of physical contact and child-rearing approaches, shedding light on the diverse ways in which touch is incorporated into early caregiving.
  • Intervention and support programs: Researchers develop and evaluate interventions aimed at promoting physical contact and supporting families, such as programs that encourage skin-to-skin contact, babywearing, and responsive parenting practices.

B. Exploring the Impact of Different Types of Touch

Research is also delving into the nuances of touch and exploring how different types of touch may have varying effects on infants. For example, studies compare the impact of skin-to-skin contact, massage, and gentle stroking on infant physiology, emotional regulation, and behavior. Additionally, research investigates the role of touch in different contexts, such as during feeding, play, and bedtime routines, to understand how touch contributes to specific developmental processes.

C. Investigating the Role of Touch in Atypical Development

A growing body of research focuses on the importance of touch for infants with atypical development, including those born prematurely, with disabilities, or experiencing developmental delays. Studies explore how touch-based interventions can support these infants’ sensory processing, emotional regulation, and overall development. Additionally, research investigates how to adapt caregiving practices to meet the unique needs of infants with atypical development and ensure they receive the benefits of physical contact.

D. Developing Interventions to Promote Physical Contact and Support Families

Researchers are actively developing and implementing interventions aimed at promoting physical contact and supporting families in providing nurturing touch to their infants. These interventions may include:

  • Parent education programs: Providing parents with information about the importance of touch and guidance on incorporating touch into daily caregiving routines.
  • Skin-to-skin contact protocols: Implementing protocols in hospitals and birthing centers that encourage immediate and sustained skin-to-skin contact between mothers and newborns.
  • Babywearing promotion: Educating parents about the benefits of babywearing and providing resources and support to encourage this practice.
  • Support groups for parents: Creating spaces where parents can connect with one another, share experiences, and receive support related to touch and infant care.

By developing and disseminating effective interventions, researchers and practitioners can contribute to creating a culture that values touch and ensures that all infants have the opportunity to experience the profound benefits of physical contact.


The evidence overwhelmingly confirms that physical contact is not simply a matter of comfort; it is a fundamental human need with profound implications for infant development and well-being. From emotional regulation and cognitive growth to physical health and the formation of secure attachments, touch plays a vital role in shaping a child’s trajectory. While modern practices and societal norms may present challenges, it is our collective responsibility to prioritize and protect this essential aspect of infant care.

A. Reaffirming the Irreplaceable Value of Physical Contact in Infancy

In a world increasingly dominated by technology and virtual interactions, the simple act of touch remains irreplaceable. It conveys love, security, and comfort in ways that words cannot. For infants, touch is their primary language, a means of communication and connection that fosters trust and lays the foundation for healthy relationships throughout life.

B. Parents, Healthcare Providers, and Society

Promoting a culture that values touch requires a collective effort from parents, healthcare providers, and society as a whole. Parents are encouraged to embrace opportunities for physical closeness with their infants, incorporating touch into daily routines and creating an environment where cuddling, holding, and affection are prioritized. Healthcare providers can play a crucial role by educating parents about the benefits of touch, supporting practices such as skin-to-skin contact and breastfeeding, and implementing policies that facilitate bonding and physical closeness within healthcare settings. Society at large can contribute by promoting family-friendly policies, such as paid parental leave and accessible childcare, that allow parents the time and resources to provide nurturing care for their infants.

C. Importance of Fostering Environments that Prioritize Touch and Connection

Creating environments that prioritize touch and connection is essential for nurturing the well-being of infants and families. This includes advocating for policies that support breastfeeding, babywearing, and co-sleeping when practiced safely. It also involves fostering community spaces where families can connect, share experiences, and receive support. By valuing touch and recognizing its profound impact on human development, we can create a more compassionate and nurturing world for infants to thrive.

Bigelow, A. E., & Williams, L. R. (2020). To have and to hold: Effects of physical contact on infants and their caregivers. Infant Behavior and Development, 61, 101494.


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